Among participants who never smoked cigarettes, the risk of esophageal cancer was not statistically different between those who had ever smoked cannabis and those who had never smoked cannabis OR, 0. Investigators assessed the possible association between cannabis use and the risk of lung cancer in middle-aged adults ages living in Los Angeles.
By comparison, the risk of ANLL associated with paternal use of cannabis during the same period was not statistically significant RR, 1.
The findings were strong and unequivocal, including a dose-response relation, in that the relative proportion of patients with lung cancer to control participants without lung cancer increased as the reported degree of smoking exposure increased. The epidemic curve indicated a point source epidemic, and most of the cases lived in the Marshfield area, although some lived as far away as Boston.
Limitations of Robison et al.
While Robison et al. SUMMARY The committee identified good- or fair-quality systematic reviews on the association between cannabis use and the risk of lung, testicular, and head and neck cancers.
Over a period of a few weeks there were 20 cases of hepatitis A that were reported to the MDPH, and most of the infected persons were residents of Marshfield, MA.
Long term cannabis use increases the risk of lung cancer in young adults. The study cohort included no participants older than 49 years of age at baseline, and participants were followed for a mean of 8. Smoking and carcinoma of the lung; preliminary report. As evidence of the mindset at the time, an article published in Reader's Digest inprovocatively titled "Cancer by the Carton," described the debate over the role of cigarettes in causing lung cancer as "a medical controversy.
The origin of human cancers.
The effects of categories of pack-years of cigarette smoking quintiles of smoking for all subjects interviewed and joint-years of cannabis smoking tertiles of use for all subjects interviewed were also assessed.
Even after publication of the study 1 and a later longitudinal analysis by Doll and Hill 3 with similar findings, the link between smoking and lung cancer remained underappreciated and controversial.
Since publication of the article by Wynder and Graham, 1 hundreds of studies have further analyzed the relation between smoking and lung cancer. There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma among participants who reported using cannabis at any time as compared to those who reported never using cannabis OR, 0.
The authors found that the patients with lung cancer had a more prolonged and intense history of smoking than the control participants—a finding consistent with the hypothesis that smoking caused lung cancer. Compared to participants who never used cannabis, those who reported using cannabis less than 40 times had a statistically significant decreased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma, after adjusting for age, sex, and education OR, 0.
Former smokers who had stopped smoking for more than 10 years showed a decline in liver cancer risk. BOX There is moderate evidence of no statistical association between cannabis use and: Methods Questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers, usually at the home of the participant.
Examples[ edit ] One of the most significant triumphs of the case—control study was the demonstration of the link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer, by Richard Doll and Bradford Hill. Below, Box summarizes the chapter conclusions. Methods: A case-control study of lung cancer in adults ≤55 years of age was conducted in eight district health boards in New Zealand.
Cases were identified from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and hospital databases. Dec 21, · This avoids the problem of individuals who have developed lung cancer possibly reporting their exposure to passive smoking differently from controls -- a problem that affects case-control studies.].
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among cooks, while controlling for smoking habits. METHODS: We used data from the SYNERGY project including pooled information on lifetime work histories and smoking habits from 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China.
Abstract. Many studies have been carried out on lung cancer and smoking in China; however, because most of the results were published in Chinese in local or national journals, they are not readily available to researchers and people involved in tobacco control in China and internationally.
To further investigate the relationship between smoking and lung cancer in Chinese women, twelve case-control studies were analyzed by meta-analysis, using the fixed-effect model.
The cumulative cases and controls were andrespectively. We found, consistently with studies from other countries, that tobacco smoking is an important risk factor of lung cancer, with former consumption showing a lower effect than current consumption. An increasing risk for smokers of black tobacco was reported by several authors 2, 3, 8, 9,Case control studies on smoking and lung cancer